A planet’s magnetic field emanates from its core and is thought to
deflect the charged particles of the stellar wind, protecting the atmosphere from being lost to space. Magnetic fields, born from the
cooling of a planet’s interior, could also protect life on the surface from harmful radiation, as Earth’s magnetic field protects us.
Low-mass stars are among the most common in the universe. Planets orbiting near such stars are easier for astronomers to target for study because when they transit, or pass in front of, their host star, they block a larger fraction of the light than if they transited a more massive star. But because such a star is small and dim, its habitable zone — where an orbiting planet gets the heat necessary to maintain life-friendly liquid water on the surface — also lies relatively close in.
And a planet so close to its star is subject to the star’s powerful gravitational pull, which could cause it to become tidally locked, with the same side forever facing its host star, as the moon is with Earth. That same gravitational tug from the star also creates tidally generated heat inside the planet, or tidal heating. Tidal heating is responsible for driving the most volcanically active body in our solar system, Jupiter’s moon Io.
The research combined models of orbital interactions and heating by Rory Barnes, assistant professor of astronomy, with those of thermal evolution of planetary interiors done by Driscoll, who began this work as a UW postdoctoral fellow and is now a geophysicist at the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, D.C.
Barnes said that in computer simulations they were able to generate magnetic fields for the lifetimes of these planets, in most cases. “I was excited to see that tidal heating can actually save a planet in the sense that it allows cooling of the core. That’s the dominant way to form magnetic fields.”
And since small or low mass stars are particularly active early in their lives — for the first few billion years or so — “magnetic fields can exist precisely when life needs them the most.”
Story Source: materials provided by University of Washington